A partial reversal of tones that occurs when film or paper is re-exposed
to light during development. Commonly called solarization.
A light used in the darkroom during printing to provide general
illumination without giving unwanted exposure.
paper: See variable-contrast
Describes an image or part of an image that shows crisp, precise
texture and detail. Opposite: blurred or soft.
film: Film that is cut
into individual flat pieces. Also called cut
lens: A lens whose focal
length is shorter than the diagonal measurement of the film with
which it is used. The angle of view with this lens-film combination
is greater at a given distance than the angle seen by the human
eye. Also called a wide-angle or wide-field lens.
lighting: A portrait lighting
setup in which the main source of light illuminates the side of
the face partially turned away from the camera. Also called narrow
A mechanism that opens and closes to admit light into a camera for
a measured length of time.
A mode of automatic exposure in which the photographer selects
the shutter speed and the camera sets the aperture that will produce
the correct exposure.
A scene or photograph in which the background is much more brightly
lit than the subject.
halide: The light-sensitive
part of common photographic emulsions; the compounds silver chloride,
silver bromide, and silver iodide.
reflex: A camera in which
the image formed by the taking lens is reflected by a mirror onto
a ground-glass screen for viewing. The mirror swings out of the
way just before exposure to let the image reach the film. Abbreviated
An electronic flash unit that fires when it detects a burst of light
from another flash unit.
eye: A sensor that detects
light to trigger a slave flash unit.
1.) A transparency (often a positive image in color) mounted between
glass or in a frame of cardboard or other material so that it may
be inserted into a projector. 2.) A protective cover that is removed
from a sheet film holder when film in the holder is to be exposed.
Also called dark slide.
Describes 1.) A film or paper that is not very sensitive to light;
2.) A lens whose widest aperture is relatively small; 3.) A long
shutter speed. Opposite: fast.
See single-lens reflex.
thiosulfate: The active
ingredient in most fixers.
1.) Describes an image that is blurred or out of focus. Opposite:
sharp. 2.) Describes a scene, negative, or print of low contrast.
Opposite: hard or high contrast. 3.) Describes a printing paper
emulsion of low contrast, such as grade 0 or 1.
The programs, such as Adobe Photoshop, used to direct a computer
to make desired changes in a digital image or other digital file.
A reversal of image tones that occurs when film is massively
overe3xposed. See also Sabattier
1.) The relative sensitivity to light of film or paper. 2.) The
relative ability of a lens to admit more light by opening to a wider
To remove small imperfections in a print caused by dust specks,
small scratches, or the like. Specifically, to paint a dye over
small white blemishes.
An electric light that contains a small, bright lamp, a reflector,
and often a lens to concentrate the light. Designed to produce
a narrow beam of bright light.
meter: A reflected-light
exposure meter with a very small angle of view, used to measure
the brightness of a small portion of a subject.
A pair of photographs taken side by side and seen separately by
each eye in viewing them through a stereoscope. The resulting image
solution: A concentrated
chemical solution that is diluted before use.
1.) An aperture setting on a lens. 2.) A change in exposure by
a factor of two. One stop more exposure doubles the light reaching
film or paper. One stop less halves the exposure. Either the aperture
or the exposure time can be changed. 3.) See stop
down: To decrease the size
of a lens aperture. Opposite: open up.
1.) Abbreviation of stroboscopic. Describes a light source that
provides a series of brief pulses of light in rapid succession.
2.) Used loosely to refer to any electronic flash.
color: A way to produce
colors by mixing dyes that contain varying proportions of the three
subtractive primary colors-cyan, magenta, and yellow. Each dye
subtracts its color from white light, leaving a balance of colored
light. Dyes that absorb all wavelengths of light produce black.
lens: A lens that can be
added to a camera lens for close-up work. It magnifies the image
and permits focusing closer than normal to an object.
cord: An electrical cord
connecting a flash unit with a camera so that the two can be synchronized.
To cause a flash unit to fire at the same time as the camera shutter
A way to use flash lighting as fill light in a photograph made in
direct sunlight. The flash lightens the shadows, decreasing the
contrast in the scene.