1.) A device on a
camera that measures the distance from camera to subject and shows
when the subject is in focus. 2.) A camera equipped with a rangefinder
focusing device. Abbreviated RF.
paper: See resin-coated
law: The theoretical relationship
between length of exposure and intensity of light, stating that
an increase in one will be balanced by a decrease in the other.
For example, doubling the light intensity should be balanced exactly
by halving the exposure time. In fact, the saw does not hold true
for very long or very short exposures. This reciprocity failure
or reciprocity effect causes underexposure unless the exposure is
increased. It also causes color shifts in color materials.
agent: The active ingredient
in a developer. It changes exposed silver halide crystals into
dark metallic silver. Also called the developing agent.
1.) A print that is smaller than the size of the negative. 2.) The
part of development in which exposed silver halide crystals forming
an invisible latent image are converted to visible metallic silver.
3.) A process that decreases the amount of dark silver in a developed
image. Negatives are usually reduced to decrease density. Prints
are reduced locally (only in certain parts) to brighten highlights.
A metal or plastic reel with spiral grooves into which roll film
is loaded for development.
meter: An exposure meter
that measures the amount of light reflected or emitted by a subject.
Sometimes called a luminance meter.
1.) A reflective surface, such as a piece of white cardboard, that
can be positioned to redirect length, especially into shadow areas.
Also called a flat. 2.) A reflective surface, often bowl-shaped,
that is placed behind a lamp to direct more light from the lamp
toward the subject.
camera: A camera with a
built-in mirror that reflects the scene being photographed onto
a ground-glass viewing screen. See also single-lens
reflex; twin-lens reflex.
A substance added to some types of developers after use to
replace exhausted chemicals so that the developers can be used
paper: Printing paper with
a water-resistant coating that absorbs less moisture than un-coated
paper, consequently reducing some processing times. Abbreviated
A crinkling of the gelatin emulsion on film that can be caused by
extreme temperature changes during processing.
A process for making a positive image directly from film exposed
in the camera; also for making a negative image directly from a
negative or a positive image from a positive transparency.
film: Film that produces
a positive image (a transparency) on exposure and development.
film: Film that comes in
a roll, protected from light by a length of paper wound around the
film. Loosely applies to any film packaged in a roll rather than
in flat sheets.