Glossary

C

Cable release:† a coiled wire with a plunger at one end and a socket at the other that attaches to a cameraís shutter release.† Pressing the plunger releases the shutter without touching (& possible moving) the camera.

Calotype: the first successful negative-positive photographic process; it produced an image on paper.† Invented by Talbot, it was also called the Talbotype.

Camera:† a picture-taking device usually consisting of a light-tight box, a film holder, a shutter to admit a measured quantity of light, and a lens to focus the image

Carte-de-visite:† a small portrait, about the size of a visiting card, popular during the 1860s.† People often collected them in albums

Cartridge:† see cassette

Cassette: a light-tight metal or plastic container that permits a roll of 35mm film t5o be loaded into a camera in the light.† Also called cartridge

Catchlight:† a reflection of a light source in a subjectís eyes

Changing bag:† a light-tight bag into which a photographer can insert his/her hands to handle film when a darkroom is not available

Chrome:† a color transparency; can be 35mm or 120 mm roll film, or sheet film (4x5, 8x10, etc.)

Chromogenic film:† film in which the final image is composed of dyes rather than silver

Circle of confusion:† the tiny circle of light formed by a lens as it projects the image of a single point of a subject.† The smaller the diameter of all the circles of confusions, the sharper the image will be.

Close-up:†† a larger-than-normal image that is formed on a negative by focusing the subject closer than normal to the lens with the use of supplementary lenses, extension tubes, or bellows.

Collodion:† a transparent, syrupy solution of pyroxylin (a nitrocellulose) dissolved in ether and alcohol; used as the basis for the emulsion in the wet-plate process

Color balance:† 1) A filmís response to the colors of a scene.† Color films are balanced for use with specific light sources.† 2) The reproduction of colors in a color print, alterable during printing

Color cast:† a trace of one color in all the colors of an image

Color compensating filters:† gelatin filters that can be used to adjust the color balance during picture taking or in color printing.† More expensive than the acetate color printing filters, can be used below the enlarger lens. Abbreviated cc.

Color temperature:† a numerical description of the color of light.† It is the temperature in degrees Kelvin (K) to which a perfect black-body radiator (an object that does not reflect any light falling on it) would have to be heated to produce a given color

Contact printing:† the process of placing a negative in contact with sensitized material, usually paper, and them passing light through the negative onto the material.† The resulting image is the same size as the negative.

Contamination:† traces of chemicals that are present where they donít belong, causing loss of chemical activity, staining, or other problems

Continuous tone:† describes and imager with a smooth gradation of tones from black through gray to white

Contrast:† the difference in darkness or density between one tone and another

Contrast filter:† a colored filter used on a camera lens to lighten or darken selected colors in a black-and-white photograph

Contrast grade:† the contrast that a printing paper produces.† Systems of grading contrast are not uniform, but in general grades 0 and 1 have low or soft contrast; grades 2 & 3 have normal or medium contrast; grades 4, 5 & 6 have hit or hard contrast

Contrasty:† describes a scene, negative, or print with very great differences in brightness between light and dark areas.† Opposite: flat

Correction filter:† a colored filter used on a camera lens to make black-and-white film produce the same relative brightnesses perceived by the human eye, i.e., a yellow filter will darken the blue sky so that it does not appear excessively light

Cut film:† see sheet film

 

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